The ATLAS experiment is the largest particle detector in the world Large Hadron Collider (LHC), the largest nuclear smasher in the world. The ATLAS experiment (short for “A Toroidal LHC Apparatus”) detects the tiny subatomic particles produced when beams of particles collide at nearly the speed of light at the LHC, operated by the European Organization for Nuclear Research (CERN). Most famously, physicists at the LHC discovered the Higgs boson in 2012 owed in large part to the results of the ATLAS experiment.
The particle detector ATLAS
Particle jets at the LHC swirl around a 17-mile (27-kilometer) long underground ring near Geneva before colliding with each other. The collisions create particles that fly in all directions, and it’s the job of a particle detector – a mass of high-tech devices surrounding the point of collision – aloud CERN.
Particles would normally travel in straight lines, but if they have a non-zero electrical charge, their trajectories can be curved by applying a strong current magnetic field. In the case of ATLAS, this is achieved by a series of extremely powerful, ring-shaped electromagnets called toroids. These toroids give ATLAS its name Open ATLAS data. The amount of curvature depends on a particle’s momentum, so it’s possible to calculate this by following a particle’s exact trajectory.
This is done by ATLAS’ internal detector, the according to CERN consists of three layers. First, just 3.3 centimeters from the central beam is an array of nearly 100 million silicon pixels, each smaller than a grain of sand, to detect charged particles as they shoot out of the collision point. Surrounding the pixel detector is a semiconductor tracker made up of millions of “microstrips” of sensors, allowing for further tracking of the emitted particles. Finally, a transition radiation tracker made up of 300,000 gas-filled tubes, each 0.17 inch (4 millimeters) in diameter, is used to detect and identify charged particles as they ionize the gas.
Surrounding the inner detector is a series of calorimeters, devices that stop and absorb particles to measure their energy. Finally, the outermost part of the system consists of a three-layer, high-precision spectrometer that aims to detect a particularly elusive type of particle called the muon.
The ATLAS experiment at the Large Hadron Collider
At 46 meters (151 ft) long, 25 meters (82 ft) in diameter and weighing 7,700 tonnes (7,000 metric tons), ATLAS is the largest accelerator detector ever built, according to the United Kingdom Council for Science and Technology Institutions. It is located in an underground cave 100m below the surface near the village of Meyrin in Switzerland. Its most distinctive feature, its massive magnet system, takes the form of eight superconducting toroids, each 82 feet (25 m) long.
The particle collisions taking place at the heart of the detector do so at a rate of about a billion per second, according to the researchers ATLAS experiment website. Data from these collisions is recorded over more than 100 million electronic channels before being analyzed by teams of scientists scattered around the world. With over 5,500 members, the ATLAS community is one of the largest scientific collaborations in history.
Results of the ATLAS experiment
ATLAS is one of two universal detectors at the LHC Compact muon solenoid (CMS) Experiment, acc CERN. Although the two detectors differ in their technical approach and magnet design, they share the same basic scientific goals. According to the ATLAS team at University College LondonThese include some of the biggest unanswered questions scientists have about the universe, such as: B. the exact nature of the universe Dark matterwhy matter is so much more plentiful than antimatterand whether the space has other undiscovered dimensions.
ATLAS’ greatest moment to date has undoubtedly been the discovery of the Higgs boson. The existence of this particle was predicted as early as the 1960s, but due to its large mass and ephemeral existence, it had never been observed with previous generations of particle detectors. The long search finally ended in 2012, however, when both ATLAS and CMS discovered the Higgs boson with a significance of “5 sigma,” meaning there was less than a 1 in a million chance that the discovery was due to chance fluctuations was caused. The July 4, 2012 announcement was so eagerly awaited that only people who had queued the night before were able to enter the room on the day of the announcement, they say CERN.
In the time since the Higgs discovery, ATLAS has been busy. In June 2021, the ATLAS collaboration submitted its 1,000th paper for publication CERN. That’s a truly amazing amount of cutting-edge research to come out of a single facility over the course of 10 years. But his work isn’t over yet, as scientists are still searching for the next great discovery beyond the Higgs boson. TK will it turn back on at a stronger level or something? Or will it just turn on when the LHC turns on, with no upgrades?
For a long time it was believed that this could be a whole family of theoretically predicted “supersymmetric” particles. But a 2021 study by ATLAS researchers found nothing like that, Live Science previously reported. That’s bad news for theorists, but not necessarily for the rest of us, because it means that when the breakthrough finally comes, it could be something completely unexpected.
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https://www.livescience.com/cern-atlas-experiment What is the ATLAS experiment?